Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a key enabler for personalized healthcare, providing a deep dive into the complex protein compositions of biological systems. This technology has vast applications in biotechnology and biomedicine but faces significant computational bottlenecks. Current methodologies often require multiple hours or even days to process extensive datasets, particularly in the domain of spectral clustering. To tackle these inefficiencies, we introduce SpecHD, a hyperdimensional computing (HDC) framework supplemented by an FPGA-accelerated architecture with integrated near-storage preprocessing. Utilizing streamlined binary operations in an HDC environment, SpecHD capitalizes on the low-latency and parallel capabilities of FPGAs. This approach markedly improves clustering speed and efficiency, serving as a catalyst for real-time, high-throughput data analysis in future healthcare applications. Our evaluations demonstrate that SpecHD not only maintains but often surpasses existing clustering quality metrics while drastically cutting computational time. Specifically, it can cluster a large-scale human proteome dataset—comprising 25 million MS/MS spectra and 131 GB of MS data—in just 5 minutes. With energy efficiency exceeding 31x and a speedup factor that spans a range of 6x to 54x over existing state-of-the-art solutions, SpecHD emerges as a promising solution for the rapid analysis of mass spectrometry data with great implications for personalized healthcare.